從人類種族系統史看我的遠祖祖先 What my DNA tell about my ancient ancestry ◎ 李成奎

從人類種族系統史看我的遠祖祖先  ◎ 李成奎

What my DNA tell about my ancient ancestry

 

Source/reference: http://www.dnaancestryproject.com

大約2,000,000 年前, 一些非洲的南方古猿 (Australopithecus africanus) 進化為人類, 稱為巧人(Homo habilis), 巧人於大約1,600,000年前進化為直立人(Homo erectus), 其頭腦容量大約為南方古猿的2倍, 到了大約450,000年前,像我們這樣的智人(Homo sapiens) 出現, 頭腦容量大約為南方古猿的3倍.

科學家的資料顯示, 人類起源於東非洲,大約在150,000年前自東非向外地移民, 大體來說,先北上到中東地區, 再到中央亞細亞, 再分佈移拓到全世界. 在這過程中,人類從非洲的源頭, 歷經傳宗接代, 到今天遍佈全世界, 已經演化成數十個支族 (Haplogroups). 也就是說,一棵人類種族系統樹 (Phylogenetic Tree),已經生長出數十條支幹,每一條支幹 (即每一個支族 Haplogroup) 採用 [英文字母及阿拉伯數字] 命名之,其中的例子如 (Haplogroup A, (A支族)), (Haplogroup L3, (L3支族)), (Haplogroup R1a, (R1a支族)), (Haplogroup M, (M支族)) 等等.

The history of human migration originated from eastern Africa. Our first ancestors from there walked northward to the middle-east, and then to Central Asia, and then spreading to the whole world. Scientists use DNA and other information to study ancient human connections and migration. Haplogroups are the classification of all humans into ancient family clans which can be traced to the common roots in Africa about 150,000 years ago. The haplogroups of all humans living today are plotted into a single phylogenetic tree of mankind. The phylogenetic tree shows how all humans are connected to each other in a complex worldwide tree that stems from Africa, and is continuously being updated as new research data are established. Dozens of haplogroups have been discovered to date; in particular, the Y-DNA haplogroups (direct paternal ancestry, i.e., the father’s, father’s, father’s…..lineage), and the mtDNA haplogroups (direct maternal ancestry, i.e., the mother’s, mother’s, mother’s…..lineage.)

基因由父母遺傳給子女. 另一方面,我們身體的基因亦隨著時間會發生突變,當然這些變化也同時遺傳給子女. 科學家核對基因, 就可以建立 [父母 – 子女] 的親族關係. 可以說, 檢驗一個人的基因,就可以找出他/她歸屬於那一個 Haplogroup (支族). 本人2010年開始參加DNA檢驗, 其結果顯示,我的父系遠祖屬於Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a (支族), 母系遠祖屬於 mtDNA Haplogroup M (支族).

I joined the dna-ancestry-project starting in 2010. I am classified Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a on my paternal lineage, and mtDNA Haplogroup M on my maternal lineage.

(I)   我的父系遠祖  My Paternal Ancestry

Y-DNA 由父傳子 (男性傳男性), (可以追溯父親的,父親的,父親的…..直線遺傳). 本人的Y-DNA歸屬Haplogroup R1a (支族). Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a (支族) 首先出現於10,000 – 20,000年前,黑海與裏海之北的蘇聯大草原 (即烏克蘭及蘇聯南部). 本支族具有Kurgan culture,亦即屬於銅器時代歐亞大草原 (從Altay Mountains到高加索及羅馬尼亞) 的遊牧民族,他們也是早期的印歐族群.

本支族傳佈了印歐語言,包括English, French, German, Russian, Spanish, several Indian languages such as Bengali and Hindi. 本支族也參與了Indo-Aryan invasion,亦即大約3,500年前,中央亞細亞的印歐語族群 Aryans人侵入並征服了印度.

The founder of Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a lived 10,000 to 20,000 years ago in the Eurasian steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas (the Ukraine or Southern Russia). It is associated with Kurgan culture and reflects an early Indo-European ethnicity. Kurgans were characteristic of Bronze Age nomadic peoples of the steppes, from the Altay Mountains to the Caucasus and Romania. Today, Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a is found in the Slavic populations of Eastern Europe, Middle East, India and parts of Central Asia. Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a is directly linked to the spread of Indo-European languages, including English, French, German, Russian, Spanish, several Indian languages such as Bengali and Hindi. Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a is associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, with highest frequency Northern India. Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a can be found in Indians of diverse linguistic and geographic affiliation.

The following studies were conducted by sampling the DNA of indigenous populations and determining the percentage of each indigenous population which belong to Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a. This table is based on a summary of current research published in peer reviewed journals.

下表是世界各地居民DNA抽樣檢驗結果, 屬於Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a的統計:

Population (study size)               % of population belonging to R1a   Reference (omit)

Europe  歐洲

  1. Krakow, Poland (波蘭) (100)  …………………………64.00%
  2. Sorbian (112)  …………………………  …………………  63.39%
  3. Livni, Southern Russia (俄羅斯) (110)  ……………62.70%
  4. Lublin, Poland (波蘭) (112)  …………………………  62.40%
  5. Russia South (Belgorod) (143)  ………………………62.2%
  6. Orel, Russia (俄羅斯) (110)  …………………………  61.8%
  7. Gdansk, Poland (波蘭) (150)  ……………………… 60.10%
  8. Belorussia Northeast (100)  …………………………60.0%
  9. Hungarians (匈牙利人) (45)  …………………………60.0%
  10. Belgorod, Southern Russia (俄羅斯) (143)  ………59.4%

 

Middle East and Central Asia  中東與中亞

  1. Kyrgyz in Kyrgyzstan (52)  …………………………63.0%
  2. Kyrgyzstan (154)  …………………………  …………50.0%
  3. Altaians, Russia (俄羅斯) (61)  ……………………39.3%
  4. Khakassians, Russia (俄羅斯) (76)  ………………34.2%
  5. Uzbek in Khorezm, Uzbekistan (70)  ……………30.0%
  6. Uzbek in Surkhandarya, Uzbekistan (68)  ……29.0%
  7. Uzbek in Tashkent, Uzbekistan (43)  ……………28.0%
  8. Uzbek in Bukhara, Uzbekistan (58)  …………… 28.0%
  9. Afghanistan (阿富汗) (204)  …………………………25.98%
  10. Tajik in Samarkand, Uzbekistan (40)  ……………25.0%

 

(II)   我的母系遠祖  My Maternal Ancestry

mtDNA 由母親傳兒子(男性) 或女兒(女性), (可以追溯母親的,母親的,母親的…..直線遺傳). 本人的mtDNA歸屬Haplogroup M (支族). mtDNA Haplogroup M (支族) 首先出現於大約60,000 – 80,000年前的地中海地區, 亦即沿著首批移民離開非洲移入亞洲的路線. mtDNA Haplogroup M (支族) 與她的姊妹族群mtDNA Haplogroup N (支族) 都是早期遷離非洲祖居的族群. 她們在各地新故鄉(亦即非洲除外) 孕育出所有新的支族(mtDNA Haplogroups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z).

The woman who founded mtDNA Haplogroup M lived approximately 60,000 to 80,000 years ago in the Mediterranean region, along the path of the first migrations of humans out of Africa into Asia. Descendants of mtDNA Haplogroup M and her sibling, mtDNA Haplogroup N, were part of a major prehistoric migration out of Africa. All non-African mtDNA Haplogroups found living today (mtDNA Haplogroups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z) descended from either mtDNA Haplogroup M or N.

The following studies were conducted by sampling the DNA of indigenous populations and determining the percentage of each indigenous population which belong to mtDNA Haplogroup M.

下表是世界各地居民DNA抽樣檢驗結果, 屬於mtDNA Haplogroup M的統計:

Population (study size)               % of population belonging to M      Reference (omit)

South Asia  南亞

  1. Chenchus in Andra Pradesh, India (印度) (96)  …………………………96.87%
  2. B’nei Israel (Non-Ashkenazi Jews) in Mumbai, India (印度) (34) 82.4%
  3. Irula, Kota, and Kurumba in South India (印度) (90)  ………………75.56%
  4. Koyas in Andra Pradesh, India (印度) (81)  ……………………………67.85%
  5. Lodha, Munda, and Santal in East India (印度) (34)  ………………64.68%

p.4/8

  1. Muria and Tipperah in Central and Northeastern India (印度) (75) 62.67%
  2. Bhil in India (印度) (49)  …………………………  ………………………………59.16%
  3. Bharia in India (印度) (64)  …………………………  …………………………54.69%
  4. Parsi in Karachi, Southeastern Pakistan (巴基斯坦) (44)  ……………54.54%
  5. Non-Ashkenazi Jew in Cochin, India (印度) (45)  ………………………51.2%

Asia  亞洲

  1. Atayal in Taiwan (台灣) (109)  …………………………49.54%
  2. Udegey, Siberia (Gvasiugi Village in Sikhote – Alin Range, Khabarovsk region)

(西伯利亞)   (46)  …………………………  …………………43.5%

  1. Evenks, Siberia (Villages of Poligus and Surinda and the Sea of Okhotsk region)

(西伯利亞) (71)  …………………………  ……………………43.5%

  1. Sumatra Bangka in Peninsula Malaysia (馬來西亞) (34)  …………………………38%
  2. Bugkalot in Philippines (菲律賓) (30)  …………………………  ………………………36.67%
  3. Li in Hainan Island, China (海南島) (283)  …………………………  …………………35.93%
  4. Ryukyu (琉球) (48)  …………………………  ………………………… ………………………35.41%
  5. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (馬來西亞) (124)  …………………………  …………………34.0%
  6. Sumatra Medan in Peninsula Malaysia (馬來西亞) (42)  ………………………… 34.0%
  7. Balinese in Indonesia (印尼) (82)  …………………………  …………………………    32.94%

Middle East and Central Asia  中東與中亞

  1. Sri Lankan Tamils (斯里蘭卡) (30)  …………………………69.7%
  2. Sinhalese in Sri Lanka (斯里蘭卡) (60)  …………………  68.5%
  3. Malay in Sri Lanka (斯里蘭卡) (30)  …………………………66.6%
  4. Muslims in Sri Lanka (斯里蘭卡) (30)  ………………………59.8%
  5. Vedda in Sri Lanka (斯里蘭卡) (30)  …………………………19.9%
  6. Southwest & Central Asians (Iran, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, India, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan) (702)  ……14.95%
  7. Uzbek in Surkhandarya, Uzbekistan (42)  …………………11.9%
  8. Persians (波斯人) (82)  …………………………  …………………9.7%
  9. Yemeni in Kuwait (科威特) (115)  …………………………  … 7.83%
  10. Yemenis (葉門人) (115)  …………………………  ………………7.8%

(III)   西元1200年之後,我的父系祖先  My Paternal Ancestors after 1200AD

根據我家李氏族譜記載,開基祖第一世陳鴻儀(推測生年ca.1200AD-    ), “系出(福建)惠邑輞上城,歷覽山川”, (註:陳鴻儀系一個遊走商人travelling merchant,從惠邑輞上城往南遊走約80公里), “至於雙溪鄉 (註:位於石井鎮隔壁,金門對岸),入贅於當地呂霞彩, 生獨子第二世蔡山(以葬地名) (推測生年ca.1230AD-    ), 蔡山入贅於當地望族李氏, 生獨子第三世李逸溪 (推測生年ca.1260-    ), 遂從妣姓改陳為李.”

在雙溪鄉繁衍到第十四世李琴(1715AD-    ),生四子,即第十五世李遇,李遠(1750-1828),李遼(1754-1834),李運. 李遠大約1770年從福建移民於台中清水高美地區北邊,李遼大約1781年移民於高美地區南邊,兩人均葬於本地.

從上述年代計算,我的父系祖先居住福建雙溪鄉570年(1200-1770AD), 居住台中220年(1770-1990AD).

According to my Lee Clan Genealogy records, the first generation CHEN, Hong-Yee (estimated 1200AD –    ) originated from Huey County, Fu-Chien, China. He was a travelling merchant. He travelled about 80 kilometers south and settled down in the Twin-River Village, married Lu, Shia-Chai and into her family. Their only son (estimated1230AD –    ), the second generation, married into a local prosperous Lee family. Their only son, the third generation (estimated1260AD –    ) adopted his mother’s family name LEE, therefore we became the LEE clan ever since.

My ancestors resided in the Twin-River Village till the fourteenth generation Lee, Chin (1715AD –    ). He has four sons the fifteenth generation: Lee, Yu; Lee, Yuan; Lee, Liao; and Lee, Ying. Lee, Yuan migrated from Twin-River Village to Taichung Ching-Suei, Taiwan in ca. 1770AD, and Lee, Liao followed in ca. 1781AD. Both were buried in Ching-Suei.

Based on the above dates, my paternal ancestors resided in Fu-Chien for at least 570 years (1200-1770AD), and in Taichung Ching-Suei for 220 years.

(IV)   結論  Conclusions

Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a (支族) 首先出現於10,000 – 20,000年前,黑海與裏海之北的蘇聯大草原, 傳到今天,有許多後裔仍居住在鄰近的東歐地區,這樣的近距離遷徙是自然可以理解的, 而我的情況卻是遠程的遷徙,到底如何從蘇聯大草原歷經萬年的時間走到福建惠邑輞上城,則需要進一步的研究. (註: 在我的一生交遊中,有些朋友說,我長相有些像是外國人,不知是否Haplogroup R1a的因緣?)

The founder of Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a lived 10,000 to 20,000 years ago in the Eurasian steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. Today, substantial R1a descendants live in Eastern Europe. This is easy to understand because of the close vicinity. As for my case, how did my paternal ancestors migrate from southern Russia to Fu-Chien, China, a rather long haul over tens of thousands of years? It deserves a further study. (note: During my life course some friends of mine had commented that my appearance looked like a foreigner. Is it because of my Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a?)

mtDNA Haplogroup M (支族) 首先出現於大約60,000 – 80,000年前的地中海地區,然後移殖中央亞細亞, 再分路, 一支往東北移向外蒙古西伯利亞方向, 又一支往東南經過印度移向東南亞及澳大利亞方向. 在古代冰河時期,海平面低落,今日的台灣,琉球,日本等島嶼與亞洲大陸相連,先民走路就可以移居到這些島嶼上.

The woman who founded mtDNA Haplogroup M lived approximately 60,000 to 80,000 years ago in the Mediterranean region, along the path of the first migrations of humans out of Africa into Asia. The descendants then migrated to Central Asia, then branching out separately, one northeastward to Mongolia and Siberia; the other southeastward to India, Southeast Asia, and Australia. During the ice age, the islands of Taiwan, Ryukyu, and Japan were connected to Asia mainland, therefore, our ancestors were able to walk to those islands.

現代流行 [世界村] 一詞, 意指全地球上的人類, 互相來往頻繁,彼此熟悉, 彷如

鄰居. 如今更進一步, 從DNA Haplogroups的對比, 今天全世界的人類, 源自非洲的同一個祖宗(genetic Adam, genetic Eve), 我們本來竟是親戚. 例如, Krakow,

Poland 的人口, 根據統計數字,有一半以上 (64%), 與我在10,000 – 20,000年前,有同一個父祖. Chenchus in Andra Pradesh, India的人口,大多數 (96.87%) 與我在60,000 – 80,000年前,有同一個母祖.

With instant electronic communications and jet travel, we are living in the global village. Now, the DNA Haplogroups have revealed that the humans living today are actually distant relatives. For example, based on statistic, over one half population in Krakow, Poland, have same paternal ancestor as mine over 10,000 – 20,000 years ago. Most of the Chenchus in Andra Pradesh, India, have same maternal ancestor as mine over 60,000 – 80,000 years ago.

台灣俗語, “有唐山公,無唐山媽”, 在這裡似乎得到了一個印證. Atayal in Taiwan幾乎有一半的人口 (49.54%) 與我在60,000 – 80,000年前,有同一個母祖,所以我與台灣原住民 Atayal是有mtDNA Haplogroup M支族的關係, 那麼,我的mtDNA Haplogroup M是誰遺傳給我的呢? 當然是從我的母親的,母親的,母親的…..一直追溯到60,000 – 80,000年前的中央亞細亞. 那麼,這條移民路是如何走出來的呢?

Male migration pattern is quite different from female. The aborigines Atayal in Taiwan has 49.54% population descended from the same mother’s, mother’s, mother’s,….., 60,000 – 80,000 years ago as mine. Although we do not know the detail of this lineage, but one thing for sure is that I am somehow related to the Taiwan aborigines Atayal in maternal lineage. This situation is verified by the old Taiwanese saying, “有唐山公,無唐山媽”, meaning male immigrants came from China crossing Taiwan Strait, and they married local aborigines female.

 

Author:  李成奎,   Email:  familylee6@outlook.com

Reviewed by: Henry Liao  廖政森

Frank Hong  洪芳彥

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